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Peru is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Peruvian territory was home to the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, and to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and Viceroyalty of Peru, which included most of its South American colonies. After Independence of Peru in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 36%. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing of products such as textiles.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 29.5 million, is Multiethnic society, including Indigenous Peoples in Peru, White Latin American, African Latin American, and Asian Latin American. The main spoken language is Spanish language, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua languages or other Indigenous languages of the Americas. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.