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Egypt is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.
Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa and the Middle East. The great majority of its estimated 80 million people live near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about , where the only arable land is found. The large areas of the Sahara Desert are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
Egypt is famous for its Ancient Egypt, with famous monuments such as the Giza pyramid complex and its Great Sphinx of Giza. Its ancient ruins, such as those of Memphis, Egypt, Thebes, Egypt, and Karnak and the Valley of the Kings outside Luxor, are a significant focus of archaeological study. The tourism in Egypt industry and the Red Sea Riviera employ about 12% of Egypt's workforce.
The economy of Egypt is one of the most diversified in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and service at almost equal production levels. In early 2011 Egypt 2011 Egyptian revolution, which resulted in the removal of the dictator of 30 years, Hosni Mubarak.